Modern Chinese and Japanese garden as a symbol of national identity in the context of globalism
Keywords:Japanese garden, Chinese garden, national memory, modernity, simplification of landscape design, multiculturalism
The article considers examples of modern gardens and parks with elements of Chinese and Japanese landscape design, analyzes the degree of their similarity with historic gardens. A comparative analysis of historic gardens and modern gardens and parks is carried out in order to prove which elements of traditional oriental landscape design are cited the most. A set of elements that embody national identity in modern Chinese and Japanese gardens is argued. It is shown how, over time, including under the direct influence of multiculturalism and in connection with the typification of pavilions for mass construction, the concentrated national features of eastern gardens were gradually smoothed out. As the most recognizable elements of modern Chinese gardens, pavilions, sculpture, compositions of stones, Japanese gardens – gates-torii, pagodas, compositions of boulders, "dry gardens", landscaping with sakura, coniferous trees, and Japanese maples were identified. Compared to Chinese gardens, in a modern Japanese garden outside of Japan there may be no buildings at all or their number is minimal, and the natural environment itself is more natural. On the contrary, the Chinese garden outside of China showcases the art of landscape design and the craftsmanship of man-made landscape paintings.
宫灵娟. 苏州古典园林. 南京: 江苏科学技术出版社, 2014. (Gong, L. Suzhou Classical Garden. Nanjing: Jiangsu Science and Technology Press, 2014.)
Ivashko, Yu., Chernyshev D., Chang P. Functional and figurative and compositional features of traditional Chinese pavilions. Wiadomości Konserwatorskie – Journal of Heritage Conservation, 2020, No.61, p.60–66.
Ivashko, Yu., Kuśnierz-Krupa, D., Chang, P. History of origin and development, compositional and morphological features of park pavilions in Ancient China. Landscape architecture. Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture, 2020, vol. 15, No. 15, р.78–85.
Ivashko, Yu., Kuzmenko, T., Li, S., Chang P. The influence of the natural environment on the transformation of architectural style. Landscape architecture. Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Agriculture, 2020, vol. 15, No. 15, р.101–108.
Ivashko, Yu., Chang P., Dmytrenko,А., Kozłowski, Т, Mykhailovskyi, D. Influence of Structural Schemes on the Shaping of Historical Wooden Buildings: On the Examples of Traditional Chinese Pavilions, Pavilions of the Chinoiserie Style and Ukrainian Wooden Churches. Wiadomości Konserwatorskie – Journal of Heritage Conservation, 2021, No. 67, p.49–60.
李春青. 中国传统园林景路设计理法. 发行地: 中央民族出版社, 2010. (Li, C. Chinese traditional garden landscape road design method. Beijing: Central National Publishing House, 2010.)
刘敦桢 . 苏州古典园林 . 北京 : 中国建筑工业出版社 , 2005. (Liu, D. Classical gardens of Suzhou. Beijing: China Construction Industry Press, 2005.)
Мостовой, С.А. Эволюция японского сада в контексте национальной истории : автореф. дис. ... канд. историч. наук / Инст. истор., археолог. и этнограф. народов Дальнего Востока. Дальневосточ. Отд. РАН. Владивосток: 2016. (Mostovoy, S.A. Evolution of the Japanese garden in the context of national history: author's abstract of a thesis for a сandidate of historical sciences / Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East. Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.Vladivostok: 2016.)
Николаева Н.С. Японские сады. Москва: Изобразительное искусство, 1975. (Nikolaeva N.S. Japanese Gardens. Moscow: Izobrazitelnoe iskusstvo, 1975.)
Николаева Н.С. Японские сады. Москва : Арт-Родник, 2005. (Nikolaeva N.S. Japanese Gardens. Moscow: Art-Rodnik, 2005.)
Orlenko, M., Ivashko, Yu., Dyomin, М., Dmytrenko, A., Chang, P. Rational and aestetic principles of form-making in traditional Chinese architecture as the basis of restoration activities. International journal of conservation science, 2020, vol. 11, issue 2, p. 499 – 512.
Orlenko, M., Ivashko, Yu., Chang, P., Ding, Y., Krupa, M., Kuśnierz, К., Sandu, I.G. The Specificity of the Restoration and Monument Protective Measures for the Preservation of Historical Chinese Gardens. International Journal of Conservation Science, 2021, vol. 12, issue 3, p. 1003–1026.
潘家平. 中国传统园林与堆山叠石. 台北: 田园城市文化事业有限公司, 1994. (Pan, J. Chinese traditional garden and pile of stacked stones. Taibei: Tianyuan City Cultural Enterprise Co., Ltd., 1994.)
裴元生. 中国园林建筑设计传统理法与继承研究 . 昆明: 云南人民出版社, 2018. (Pei, Y. Research on Traditional Theory and Inheritance of Chinese Garden Architecture Design. Kunming: Yunnan People's Publishing House, 2018.)
Qin, L. Chinese pavilions. Beijing: China Architecture and Building Press, 2019.
Шевцова Г. Історія японської архітектури і мистецтва. Київ: Грані-Т, 2011. (Shevtsova, H. History of Japanese architecture and art. K. Grani-T, 2011.)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Landscape Architecture and Art
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.