Green Infrastructure Development within Urban Environment provided by Privately Owned Public Spaces


  • Ilze Stokmane Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Latvia
  • Marta Dupate Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies



Privately Owned Publicly – Accessible Spaces, Privately Owned Public Spaces, POPS


Since the industrialisation era, there has been a trend towards radial sprawl, rapid development and concentration of people in the largest cities. Historically, people needed space outside their homes to interact and communicate to each other. In the city it was provided by public open space, forming the centres of social life. The conditions and opportunities for people to use outdoor space have also changed with changing eras and political power settings, along with the scale of development, security concerns and ownership of space in the city. The aim of the study is to explore the nature of Privately Owned Publicly – Accessible Spaces (POPS) and their potential development contribution to urban green infrastructure, developing design and planning recommendations for the development of Privately Owned Publicly – Accessible Spaces in the urban environment. The research carried out during the literature review and analysis of city plans of the cities introduced POPS program shows the relevance of the topic of private ownership of public open space in the world's major metropolises, but that it is conceptually possible to adapt it to smaller-scale urban planning, for example by applying it to private investors and developers in their requirements for new buildings and sites development.

Author Biographies

Ilze Stokmane, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Latvia

Dr.oec., Associate professor and leading researcher at the Department of Landscape Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Environment and Civil Engineering, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies. Research interests – sustainable development and resilience, landscape democracy, emphasizing the societal dimension of landscape architecture.

Marta Dupate, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies

Mg. arch. research interests - landscape design, management and communication in townscape. Spatial context of design and green infrastructure.


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How to Cite

Stokmane, I., & Dupate, M. (2023). Green Infrastructure Development within Urban Environment provided by Privately Owned Public Spaces. Landscape Architecture and Art, 22(22), 81–88.